Referencing book titles in essays

The exact form of your citation depends upon which guidelines your professor has asked you to follow. Reference book titles outside of parentheses. For example, write "In the novel Being in Love, Smith has defined love as a social impulse. Write the name of the author in parentheses, along with the year a work was published and the page number you are referencing.

Place this at the end of your sentence, before the period. For example, "In the novel Being in Love, love is defined as a social impulse" Smith, , p. List only the year of publication and page number in parentheses if you mention the author by name in the text. For example, "In the novel Being in Love, Smith has defined love as a social impulse" , p. Italicize the titles of books mentioned in the text. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve.

Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and , in , or , or with.

Bibliography, Annotated Bibliography or Works Cited?

Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity. No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual Ritter, will be able to give you further guidance. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received.

Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief OED, There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism for whatever reason. Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case.

Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done.

In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes.

As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away.

Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have.

There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks sites on the internet where complete essays are sold.


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The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example.

There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible Jakoblich, Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms.

Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes when copying from electronic articles. The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor.

Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others.

It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations.

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Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father Blankenhorn, , I only use the idea, not the exact words.

When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context.

How to Format the Title in MLA 8 - EasyBib Blog

In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks. If there are 4 or more authors, give all names if possible. If any are omitted, use 'et.

How to Cite

Subsequent authors may be listed with their first name or initial s first followed by surname e. When referencing electronic sources, students should include the URL of the webpage to allow others to trace the site easily. It is also important to specify that the reference is an online source and to identify the date on which you accessed the site.

If the eBook also has a print equivalent, you can simply follow the guidelines for referencing the print book. If the eBook is only available online, follow the guidelines below:. Talk to someone in your school or a specialist support service.