However, what may be common knowledge in one culture, nation, academic discipline or peer group may not be common knowledge in another. How do I determine if the information I am using is common knowledge? To help you decide whether information can be considered common knowledge, ask yourself: Who is my audience?
A Handbook for Students
What can I assume they already know? Will I be asked where I obtained my information? The best advice is: When in doubt, cite your source. Which of the following statements would be considered common knowledge? Which would need to be cited? Statement 1 is common knowledge — the Big Bang theory is widely accepted among scientists and the term is used regularly in everyday speech.
Statement 2 needs citation; this information is very specific and may even be unknown to some physicists. Statement 3 would not need citation to an audience of physics students but would need citation in a paper for a non-expert audience. What is not Common Knowledge? The citations are formatted in a consistent style according to whichever citation format is used. Many instructors specify which format they prefer; some leave it up to the students as long as they maintain one consistent format.
A " Bibliography " is not the same as a "Works Cited" or "References" list.
In your "Works Cited" or "References" you only list items you have actually cited in your paper. In a "Bibliography" you list all of the material you may have consulted in preparing your essay, whether or not you have actually cited the work.
When to Cite Sources on Research Papers
Each example of an end reference is accompanied here by an example of a corresponding in-text reference. For more details and many more examples, see Chapter 29 of Scientific Style and Format. For the end reference, list authors in the order in which they appear in the original text.
The year of publication follows the author list.
Use periods to separate each element, including author s , date of publication, article and journal title, and volume or issue information. Location usually the page range for the article is preceded by a colon. For the in-text reference, use parentheses and list author s by surname followed by year of publication. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds. Am J Vet Res. In the end reference, separate information about author s , date, title, edition, and publication by periods.
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Place of publication: publisher. Microbiology: laboratory theory and application. New York NY : Springer. Detroit MI : Thompson Gale. Place of publication: publisher; [date updated; date accessed]. APSnet: plant pathology online. For the in-text reference, include only the first word or two of the title enough to distinguish it from other titles in the reference list , followed by an ellipsis.
Scientific Style and Format Citation Quick Guide Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references also known as citations within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1 citation—sequence; 2 name—year; and 3 citation—name. Citation—Sequence and Citation—Name. Citation—Sequence and Citation—Name The following examples illustrate the citation—sequence and citation—name systems. Journals List authors in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by a period. Article title. Journal title. Date;volume issue :location.
When to Cite – Choosing & Using Sources: A Guide to Academic Research
Volume with no issue or other subdivision Laskowski DA. Issue with no volume Sabatier R. Books Separate information about author s , title, edition, and publication by periods. The basic format is as follows: Author s. Organization as author Advanced Life Support Group. Author s plus editor s or translator s Klarsfeld A, Revah F. Chapter or other part of a book, same author s Gawande A.
Chapter or other part of a book, different authors Rapley R. Multivolume work as a whole Alkire LG, editor. Dissertations and Theses Lutz M. Newspapers Weiss R. Website Format: Title of Homepage. Online journal article Format: Author s of article. Example: Fogarty M.
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Forthcoming or Unpublished Material Not all forthcoming or unpublished sources are suitable for inclusion in reference lists. Book: Goldstein DS. Personal communication References to personal communication are placed in running text rather than as formal end references. Name—Year The following examples illustrate the name—year system. Journals For the end reference, list authors in the order in which they appear in the original text.
Volume issue :location.
Citing Resources: When to Cite
Smart et al. Pizzi et al. Gardos et al. Heemskerk et al. Ramstrom et al. Sabatier Books In the end reference, separate information about author s , date, title, edition, and publication by periods. Ferrozzi et al.
Wenger et al. Gawande Chapter or other part of a book, different authors Rapley R. Rapley Multivolume work as a whole Alkire LG, editor. Alkire Dissertations and Theses Lutz M. Blanco et al. Website Format for end reference: Title of Homepage.