Similar to other bioethical subspecialties e. Some have argued that it is merely a topical specialization that overlaps in its ethical considerations with several other emerging technologies and developments in biotechnology. Particularly within Western countries, the current academic research environment has resulted in criticisms of ethics and research practices. Such hyping of research may also lead to media distortion in coverage of new technologies. Such activities become counterproductive to active public engagement of such complex emerging technologies by impeding ethical considerations in the public deliberation process.
While the potential for nanotechnologies is vast, they pose threats similar to that of other realms of biotechnology and emerging technologies e. Risk assessment for effects on environment, health, and safety EHS must be carefully considered and guarded against given the challenges for both detecting and removing nanotechnology materials Khan Potential futuristic applications of nanobots and nanoassemblers have given rise to concerns among even the most ardent supporters of nanotechnologies.
The potential for environmental contamination remains, however, and subsequent regulations and policies should be examined that promote due diligence on the part of individuals and corporations before releasing such materials publicly.
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Such considerations may entail the need for strategies on containment, detection, and inactivation of nanotechnologies Mitchell et al. At the very least, efforts must be made to facilitate open dialogue between governmental bodies, the general public, as well as those individuals and corporations pursuing release of nanotechnology.
Nanotechnology presents particular challenges for constructing accurate threat matrices due to uncertainty regarding potential toxicity and pollution and for the near future will continue to present particular challenges for risk management and insurers. Clear priority must be given in nanoscience to study these aspects of potential risks, alongside traditional emphasis on discovery. Jotterand Furthermore, given the novel properties that exist at the nanoscale level, previous knowledge of bulk properties or the properties of microor macroscale materials may offer little guidance with respect to potential toxicity or harm Malsch and Emond One example would be gold, which at the macro level e.
Given the size of nanoparticles, a potential health concern is the possibility that if they enter the human bloodstream, their size would enable them to cross the blood—brain barrier. Unintended consequences are often examined with respect to short-term effects, but long-term consequences also may result that are not properly anticipated or thoroughly considered. One such example of an unintended consequence is that nanoparticles may exit the body of animals or humans as waste and be introduced into the environment indirectly.
Environmental contamination could result both from direct release of nanoparticles having an unintended consequence or through indirect means such as being introduced as a waste by-product. Indirect means of contamination have important parallels with certain pharmaceutical drugs in which trace amounts have made their way into water supplies. In the midst of uncertain risk, the precautionary principle is typically invoked.
However, in the case of revolutionary technologies, the precautionary principle offers a conceptual framework to advance cautiously in their research, development, and commercialization until real risks can be distinguished from phantom risks and such real risks are analyzed and appropriately managed. Beyond the more narrow areas of risk assessment and analyses to assess effectiveness and economic impact, emerging technologies such as nanotechnologies should also account for the broader context of technology assessment.
In the case of nanotechnologies, some bioethicists have raised concerns similar to those of genetic engineering and synthetic biology, in that the attempt to control or manipulate nature at the atomic or molecular level instrumentalizes nature, emptying nature of any intrinsic value or ontological reality. Nanotechnologies themselves need not be guilty of such critiques, particularly those that emerge from a top-down approach.
NANOTECHNOLOGY IEEE PAPER 2018
Yet, given the engineering model that is applied to areas such as synthetic biology, nanotechnologies that emerge from a bottom-up approach may be vulnerable to such concerns. Both articles point to the importance of broader considerations in the assessment of emerging technologies such as nanotechnologies.
While the issues of informed consent are not unique to nanotechnology, they do raise important considerations for how such technologies will be introduced for human use. Given the potential for environmental contamination and other public health risks, such consent discussions often include the importance of engaging the general public at least through education but also through public commenting and deliberation. Informed consent presents particular challenges when so little is understood on toxicity, particularly for early experimental use in humans or the widespread commercial use of nanoparticles, the long-term effects of which are not well understood.
Who coined the term 'nanotechnology'?
One need only look to the introduction of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreen as an example of when nanotechnologies are introduced into a consumer product without adequate public education or without fully exploring potential risks. Additional considerations for diagnostic nanotechnologies such as biosensors involve the issue of privacy and control of information that may result.
Again, while not unique to nanotechnologies, the potential for the ubiquity of such sensors e. When combined with DNA detection and analysis, these diagnostics introduce all of the privacy considerations relevant to genetic testing and screening. Nanotechnologies and convergence frequently appear together in discussions of emerging technologies. In , the National Science Foundation and U. Department of Commerce commissioned the report Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance that introduced the acronym NBIC nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science.
The report argued that these previously disparate technologies were increasingly converging and would coalesce to improve health, overcome disability, and even permit human enhancement and posthuman technologies.
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The convergence of such emerging technologies may open exponential leaps forward in regenerative medicine but more modestly will exacerbate already existing medical challenges regarding the distinction between therapies and enhancements. One particular issue is the challenge to clearly distinguish when nanotechnology is therapeutic and when it would be an enhancement. Speculative proposals for nanotechnology use extend these medical interventions to include radical life extension research and cryonics. The role of nanotechnologies along with other converging technologies raises important considerations into the ontological status of living organisms and living systems, including human beings.
Possibilities of convergence between nanotechnologies and neuroscience or nanotechnologies and genetics raise important considerations of human identity, the limits of human nature, and ultimately what constitutes the status of being human or, in other words, human nature itself Jotterand While perhaps speculative in nature, the possibility of such futuristic technological outcomes should be included as part of a broader analysis of technology assessment when applied to nanotechnologies.
These speculative analyses may be distinct from analyses of presenting technologies but should not be ignored in a more complete analysis of nanotechnologies as such. Finally, within the global context, questions must be raised with respect to just development and use of nanotechnologies, particularly within existing global inequities. Considerations should be given to how such advances in nanotechnologies will help resolve or exacerbate long-standing inequities.
The rapid adoption of mobile communication technologies drastically improving access to global data and communication networks serves as an example of closing a disparity, which global development of nanotechnologies may well follow.
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Unfortunately, realization of such funding priorities has been modest at best. Relevant regulatory regimes are also implicated. Setting appropriate regulatory regimes and policy guidelines within individual countries presents particular challenges given the typically slow regulatory and legislative processes and the rapid pace of technology development.
Furthermore, the international context for developing such guidelines or regulatory protocols presents even more vexing challenges.
Self-regulation presents substantive challenges with respect to the nature of the public risks that may be involved. While guidelines for adequate models of risk management and responsibility of risk have slowly emerged, they are not universally agreed upon.
Nanotechnologies have demonstrated the potential to transform the landscape of industrial manufacturing, energy production, environmental sciences, information and communication technologies, and medical research. Careful consideration must also be given to immediate concerns for potential risks as well as examinations of the broader impact of such technologies for considerations of human nature and human futures both in their individual and global dimensions. Free research papers are not written to satisfy your specific instructions. Research Paper Examples. Nanotechnology is still in the process of development, but nevertheless, it can already surprise humanity with wonders that were impossible several decades ago.
bartheocelsili.ga For example, there are special carbon nanotubes that are able to turn into an artificial muscle ; there is a 3D printer that can print new cancer drugs; there already exist self-healing materials, such as concrete that fills in its cracks to ship hulls that knit back together; viruses were created that convert pressure into electrical energy, and so on. These and other inventions are the beginning of a new technological era io9. Nanotechnology is a relatively new branch of science that can revolutionize the reality we live in today.
Nanotechnology operates with matter at dimensions between one to one hundred nanometers. This allows scientists to gain control over the unique properties that matter at such a small scale possesses. Self-healing materials, artificial muscle, and other wonderful inventions are only the beginning of the new era of technology. Remember Me. What is your profession? Student Teacher Writer Other. Username or Email.
Academic Assignments Writing an Essay. Writing a Research Paper. Writing a Review. Writing Guides for Students Writing a Memoir 2. Creative Writing Guides Writing a Song 3. Writing a Letter Writing an Evaluation Letter 3. Writing Essentials. Grammar Handbook. By Nicholas Klacsanzky Among all the technological wonders of modernity, there is one that, in perspective, can revolutionize reality. Need Help?